Tractors

Tractor Transmission System: Meaning, Types and Uses

Updated on 22nd October, 2023, By Abhijeet Warak
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Tractor Transmission System: Meaning, Types and Uses
Tractor transmission system is an important part of a tractor that helps to control the power, torque, and speeds of the tractor. In India, only manual transmission is provided in the gear system of the tractors.

Table of Content

Introduction

A tractor transmission system is a mechanism that transmits engine power to the wheels of the tractors. It consists of many gears and shafts that work simultaneously to provide a variation in the speed and torque of the tractor engine’s power.

The tractor transmission system consists of several parts, including a clutch, gearbox, gear speeds, and brakes. A clutch is used to engage and disengage the transmission and the engine. After that, the set of gears present in the transmission system is used to control the engine power, torque, and speed.

In India, only manual transmission is provided in the gear system of the tractors. The automatic transmission system in tractors is not available in India, but other countries in the world have tractors with the automatic transmission system.

The transmission system is connected to the final drive, which transmits engine power to the wheels using the set of gears provided, thereby helping the tractor to move forward or reverse.

Overall, the tractor transmission system is an important part of a tractor that helps to control the power, torque, and speeds of the tractor. Let’s discuss the transmission system in detail, such as different types of transmission systems, tractor gears, and more.

Types of Transmission Systems in Tractors

A tractor’s transmission system is an essential part that ensures optimum engine power reaches the wheels of the tractor. The different types of gearboxes used in the tractors are sliding mesh, constant mesh, partial constant mesh and synchromesh. Let’s discuss each of them one by one with their advantages and disadvantages.

Sliding Mesh Gearbox

A sliding mesh gearbox is a manual type of transmission primarily used in tractors. It is the oldest and simplest type of gearbox.

In this type of gearbox, the gears are arranged on the main shaft and counter shaft. At a particular time, only one set of gears in the main shaft and counter shaft mesh with each other.

If two pairs get meshed at the same time, they will try to rotate the main shaft at different speeds, thereby resulting in the breaking of one of the shafts.

Advantages of a Sliding Mesh Gearbox

  • Being the oldest type of gearbox, it has a simple design with fewer components, making it a low-maintenance gearbox.
  • It can handle high power and torque, making it best suited for heavy-duty operations.
  • It is ideal for mini tractors as they work in small lands or fields.

Disadvantages of a Sliding Mesh Gearbox

  • In this type of gearbox, the gear shifting needs experience and skill. The gear shifting is done manually and carefully at less speed or less the gears can clash or damage.
  • The lifespan of this gearbox is quite short, as the absence of synchronisation can cause wear and tear on the gears.
  • The operators can only shift to the adjacent gear at a time, which means they cannot shift to the last gear from the first gear directly. It shows the limitations of this gearbox.
  • The tractors with sliding mesh gearboxes cause more vibrations compared to the tractors with constant mesh gearboxes.

Constant Mesh Gearbox

A constant mesh gearbox is also a manual transmission used in tractors and many other heavy-duty vehicles. In this gearbox also, the main shaft is splined. The gears on the main shaft are in constant mesh with the gears on the counter shaft.

However, some gears on the counter shaft are sliding back and forth to engage and disengage with the gears on the main shaft.

This process is done by disengaging the gearbox and the engine with the help of a clutch and then engaging the different pairs of gears on the main shaft and counter shaft with the help of a fudge.

The gear shifting process is smoother compared to the one in sliding mesh, making it better than the sliding mesh gearbox.

Advantages of a Constant Mesh Gearbox

  • In this gearbox, all the gears are constantly engaged, which means the process of gear shifting is smooth.
  • The synchronisation between gears is not needed resulting in less wear and tear of gears and a longer lifespan of the gearbox.
  • The power transmission is more efficient with less power loss compared to the sliding mesh gearbox.

Disadvantages of a Constant Mesh Gearbox

  • It has a complex design resulting in more maintenance and manufacturing costs.
  • It is less suitable for high-torque applications as its design may not handle heavy loads so well compared to the other type of gearboxes.

Partial Constant Mesh

This type of transmission system is a combination of both sliding mesh and constant mesh gearboxes. In this gearbox, some set of gears in both the main shaft and counter shaft are always engaged (constant mesh), while some set of gears is engaged or disengaged as per requirement (sliding mesh). This type of transmission system is provided in many tractor models.

Advantages of a Partial Constant Mesh Gearbox

  • It is equipped with the features of both constant mesh and sliding mesh gearboxes.
  • The gear shifting process is smoother than the sliding mesh gearbox but less smooth than the constant mesh gearbox.

Disadvantages of a Partial Constant Mesh Gearbox

  • It is more complex than the sliding mesh gearbox and has more manufacturing and maintenance costs.
  • It may not work well for applications that require high torque.

Synchromesh Gearbox

It is the most advanced type of gearbox provided in tractors in India. It is also a manual transmission system designed for smoother shifting of gears than the constant mesh gearbox.

In this type of gearbox, each gear consists of a synchroniser ring that helps to match the input shaft speed with the output shaft.

Once the operator changes the gear, the synchroniser ring helps to speed up or slow down the gear speed so that the gears can mesh easily without causing any damage to the transmission system.

In this gearbox, helical-cut type gear teeth are provided, which have angled teeth. These types of gear teeth are smoother than the straight-cut gear teeth and help in the smoother meshing of gears.

The overall gear shifting process causes fewer vibrations and helps in smoother transmission. The lifespan of a synchromesh gearbox is higher than the other types of gearboxes.

Advantages of a Synchromesh Gearbox

  • It offers easy and smooth gear shifting compared to the sliding and constant mesh gearboxes.
  • The wear and tear of gears are relatively less compared to the other gearboxes resulting in higher reliability.
  • It can be used in all types of operations that require low or high torque, making it best suited for different farming works.

Disadvantages of a Synchromesh Gearbox

  • It has a more complex design than the sliding and constant mesh gearboxes, making it more expensive than the other two.
  • The synchronisers provided for gear shifting can wear out with time, resulting in higher maintenance costs.

Partial Synchromesh Gearbox

It is the combination of both synchromesh and constant mesh gearbox. In this type of gearbox, the lower gears (one and two) do not have synchroniser rings, while the higher gears (three, four and five) consist of a synchroniser ring. The gear shifting in this type of transmission system requires more skill and expertise compared to a full synchromesh gearbox.

Advantages of a Partial Synchromesh Gearbox

  • This gearbox is less complex than a full synchromesh gearbox resulting in less manufacturing costs.
  • It works more efficiently than the full constant mesh gearbox and has lesser maintenance than the full synchromesh gearbox.

Disadvantages of a Partial Synchromesh Gearbox

  • Its maintenance cost is more than that of a full constant mesh gearbox.
  • It required more expertise and skill to operate than the full synchromesh gearbox.

Different Types of Tractor Gear Systems in Top 5 Tractor Brands

Here, you will learn about the transmission system in the top 5 tractor brands in India. Let’s discuss them in brief.

John Deere Tractor Gear System

John Deere tractor company uses the latest technology while manufacturing its tractors. The transmission systems provided in the John Deere tractors are collarshift transmission and synchromesh transmission. The brand also provided TSS (Top Shaft Transmission) in both types of gearboxes.

Mahindra Tractor Gear System

Mahindra Tractors is the topmost tractor brand in India. It manufactures tractors as per the needs of farmers and the working environment. The brand offers all types of transmission systems in its tractors, including sliding mesh, constant mesh, partial constant mesh, synchromesh, and partial synchromesh transmission.

Massey Tractor Gear System

Massey Ferguson Tractors is the sub-brand of TAFE Group (Tractor and Farm Equipment Company). It is among the top ten tractor brands in India that produce powerful tractors with efficient transmission systems. The brand offers different types of transmission systems, including sliding mesh, partial constant mesh, constant mesh, and partial synchromesh gearboxes.

Swaraj Tractor Gear System

Swaraj Tractors is one of the most popular names in the Indian tractor industry. It manufactures tractors according to the farming conditions in India. The Swaraj tractor gear pattern is operated with many transmission systems, including sliding mesh, partial constant, constant mesh, and synchromesh gearbox.

Sonalika Tractor Gear System

Sonalika Tractors is another famous name in the Indian tractor industry and is among India’s top 5 tractor brands. The Sonalika tractors consist of different transmission systems, including sliding mesh, constant mesh, and synchromesh gear. The company does not offer partial constant mesh or partial synchromesh gearbox in its tractors.

Conclusion

It was all about the tractor gearbox system in India. We have also listed the types of transmission systems provided in the top 5 tractor brands in India. We hope you learn everything about the tractor’s transmission system. If you want to learn more about tractor gear or transmission systems, contact Tractorkarvan anytime. Moreover, you get the latest and updated information on the transmission system or other parts of the tractor; stay tuned with Tractorkarvan.

Abhijeet Warak
Published By
Abhijeet Warak
With over 2 years of experience, Abhijeet is a seasoned tractor and implement expert with an M.Tech (Agri) (FMP) from Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. His knowledge is rooted in practical experience and academic excellence.
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