What is a Tractor – Meaning, Types, Uses and Function

10 Apr 2023
What is a Tractor – Meaning, Types, Uses and Function
Tractors plays a vital role for all types of farming activities all over the world. It has revolutionized the way of farming by increasing the efficiency and productivity. In modern era, it plays a crucial role in agriculture field, and enables farmers to cultivate their land in a faster and more efficient manner.

An agricultural tractor is a versatile machine equipped with modern technology, that can perform a variety of tasks, from ploughing to harvesting. It can perform on small and large farms, making it an important for modern agriculture.  

In this article, we will discuss about an agricultural tractor is, its uses, and its function in modern agriculture. 

  • What is a tractor? 
  • Components of a tractor 
  • Types of tractors 
  • Functions of tractor in modern age 
  • Significance of a tractor to farmers 
  • Best brands of tractor in India 
  • Powerful tractors in India 
  • Points to keep in mind while choosing a tractor  

What is a Tractor? 

An agricultural tractor is designed to provide high torque at low speeds, so that you can get more power from tractor even in slow speed. It is a powerful machine designed to perform various tasks like ploughing, tilling, planting, harvesting, and transporting agricultural produce. They are equipped with powerful engines, large traction tyres, and hydraulic systems that enable them to perform a variety of tasks. 

Different Types of Tractors 

Tractors are manufactured in various sizes and shapes to do multiple tasks. The most common types of tractors include: 

Utility Tractors: These tractors come with engines ranging from 40 HP to 120 HP.  They are put in use to perform heavy tasks like ploughing and pull heavy implements. These tractors come in both 2WD and 4WD variant.

Compact Tractors: As the name suggests, these are small tractors and are a kind of utility tractors. This is why they are also known as compact utility tractors (CUT). They come with engine generating power output between 20 HP to 50 HP. They are designed to operate in small and narrow fields that require more manoeuvrability. They can be easily attached to implements like post hole diggers and rotavators, among others.

Row Crop Tractors: These tractors are built to work in row crops, including cotton, corn, and soybeans. They are come with narrow tyres, enables it to work in between rows. 

Orchard Tractors: Orchard tractors are a specialist type of tractor, that are featured with orchards. They come with narrow tyres, enables them to work in tight spaces.

Industrial Tractors: Industrial tractor comes with strong and powerful engines, that enables it to do heavy- duty works like construction and mining. They come with large tyres that enable them to perform heavy- duty tasks.

Uses of Tractors in Agriculture

Tractors are used for multiple agrarian tasks, and currently they have become an essential tool for farmers. Let us talk over some of the smart uses of farming tractors:

Ploughing: Tractors are undoubtedly useful in terms of ploughing fields. Also, it is useful for breaking up the soil to produce good terrain for seed germination.

Tilling: Tilling is truly important to make good and loose soil. Tillage is used to mix the soil for proper aeration and better seed germination. This in turn leads to increased crop productivity.

Planting: Tractors can be used for planting crops. Tractors specialized for planting places seeds in the soil at the proper depth and distance.

Irrigation: Tractors are used to irrigate crops, particularly in areas where rain is limited. They are equipped with irrigation systems that enable them to water crops efficiently. They can also be used for digging trenches and laying pipes to water crops.

Cultivating: With the help of tractors, we can fluently cultivate crops. Cultivating involves removing weeds and preparing the soil for planting.

Fertilization: Tractors are used to spread compost on the land before planting to assure that the soil has the necessary nutrients for the crops to grow.

Pesticide Application: Tractors are also used for spraying pesticides. With the help of tractors, farmers can easily spray pesticides in large fields.

Harvesting: Tractors are useful in harvesting crops similar as paddy, wheat and maize, among others. Harvesting involves cutting, gathering, and transporting crops from the field.

Transporting: Tractors are also useful in terms of transporting agrarian yield from the field to the storehouse area or market. They are equipped with trailers that enable them to carry large loads of yield.

Components of a Tractor & their Functions

Tractors come in different sizes and features, but all tractors have some common components. Let us have a look on the main components of a tractor along with their functions. 


We can say it is the heart of a tractor, that provides the power required to perform various tasks. Tractor engines are usually diesel engines because they are more efficient, and durable compared to other engines. The engine size and power of any tractor depends on the work it is designed to do. The engine is usually fitted at the front of the tractor. 

With the advancement in technology, the modern tractors also come in electric engine variant. One of the most popular electric tractors in India is Sonalika Tiger Electric. It is India’s first electric tractor and comes with 11 HP engine.

Besides, tractors also have petrol engines, but instances are few. One of the famous tractors is Swaraj Code that come with 11.1 HP engine.


The transmission system of gears allows the tractor to move forward or backward at various speeds. It also allows the tractor to change gears to adjust to the terrain and the task at hand. Tractors usually comes with a manual transmission system.

The transmission system of a tractor usually come in three different variants, viz., sliding mesh gearbox, constant mesh gearbox, and synchromesh gearbox. 

Hydraulic System 

The hydraulic system is meant to power various implements attached to the tractor, like ploughs, mowers, and loaders. It comprises of a hydraulic pump, hydraulic hoses, and hydraulic cylinders. The work of hydraulic pump is to draw fluid from a reservoir and to pressurize it. After, the pressurized fluid is sent through hoses to the cylinders, the in-built pressure is used to move the implements. 

Three-point Hitch 

The three-point hitch allows implements to be attached to the tractor. It comprises of two lower links that attach to the implement and an upper link that provides stability. It is designed to allow smoother operation of implements.


The PTO (Power Take Off) is used to transfer rotational power from the engine to an implement. The PTO is generally fitted at the rear of the tractor and is used to supply power to the tractor implements that require rotational power. These include rotavators, mowers, and balers, among others.


Tractors comes with large and heavy-duty tyres that are designed to provide traction on rough and rugged terrain. The tractor tyres are usually filled with air and partially with water to provide additional weight and stability. The size and type of tyre depends on the size of the tractor and the terrain where it is to operate.


The cabin is built for the ease of the operator while driving a tractor. The cabin provides protection to the tractor driver from the external elements and noise. In modern era, cabs are featured with air conditioning, heating, and sound systems to make the operator's job easier. 

Function of Tractors in Modern Age

Farmers can use the tractor for a variety of agricultural operations such as ploughing, planting and harvesting. With the help of a tractor, they can easily take the farm produce from the fields to their home, seeds store or even to the market.

Modern tractors are loaded with advanced technology, which enables them to work more efficiently and precisely. Now tractors are manufactured keeping in mind the safety of the driver and the labourers working in the field. The tractor is designed in such a way that it is easy to perform agricultural tasks as well as durable. They are designed for heavy-duty tasks on the farm and can be operated in a wide range of weather and soil conditions.

Significance of Tractor to Farmers

Tractors have had a significant impact on the lives of farmers all over the world. They have made cultivating more fruitful and have helped farmers to multiply their productivity. Farmers with tractors can execute jobs more hastily and efficiently, which means they can cultivate further land and produce more crops.

Tractors have also made it achievable for farmers to raise their income by producing more crops and putting up them at the market. This has had a meaningful impact on the livelihoods of farmers all over the world, particularly in developing countries where farming is a significant source of income. Best Brands of Tractors in India

India is an agricultural country, and tractors play a vital role in the country's farming sector. There are varieties of tractors available in India, and farmers have the option to choose from a wide range of brands and models. Some of the performing tractors in India include:

Mahindra Tractors: Mahindra tractors are among the most popular tractor’s list in India. They are known for their reliability and durability. Mahindra manufactures variety of tractor models, that can perform various farming along with commercial operations.

John Deere: In terms of power and performance, John Deere tractors are the most loved one by the farmers worldwide. Day by day, John Deere tractors are also becoming popular in India, particularly in the northern regions of the country. John Deere tractors are known for their advanced technology and effectual performance.

Swaraj Tractors: Swaraj brand indigenously manufactures tractors, and they are known for their durability and reliability. Swaraj tractors are available in a wide range of models, and they can do wide range of farming tasks.

Sonalika Tractors: Sonalika tractors are also popular in India, particularly in the southern regions of the country. These tractors are known for their effectiveness and affordability, making them a popular choice among small and frontier farmers.

Heavy-duty Tractors in India

India is home to some of the most heavy-duty tractors in the world. The agrarian tractors are equipped with high- performance engines, advanced features, and superior build quality. Below is the list of top 10 powerful tractors in India:

Mahindra Arjun Novo 605 DI- I: This tractor is equipped with 57 HP engine and has a PTO power of 50.28 HP. It has a hydraulic lifting capacity of 2200 kg.

Swaraj 963 FE: The engine of this tractor is designed to generate a power of 60 – 65 HP and has a PTO power of 50.6 HP. It can lift 2200 kg of heavy implements.

John Deere 5310 Trem III: This tractor is equipped with 55 HP engine, and it can operate an implement with a PTO of 45+ HP. It has a hydraulic lifting capacity of 2000 kg.

New Holland 3600- 2 TX: This tractor is equipped with 49.5 HP and has a hydraulic lifting capacity of 1700 kg.

Kubota MU 4501: This tractor is equipped with 45 HP engine. It has a hydraulic lifting capacity of 1640 kg.

Points to Keep in Mind While Choosing a Tractor

Agri tractors are an essential tool for farmers and agrarian workers. Choosing the right tractor can make all the difference in your agricultural operations. Different tractor models of different brands are available in the market. It is often difficult for farmers to know which tractor will best suit their requirements. Here are ten things to keep in mind while choosing an agriculture tractor.


Power has a very important place in a tractor. That is why farmers must check the power rating of the tractor while buying the tractor. The power of the tractor should be chosen according to the work for which the tractor is being bought. For heavy-duty tasks, a high-powered tractor would be appropriate.


While buying a tractor, the size of the tractor should also be kept in mind. Large farms or heavy loads require a large tractor, but for small farms this tractor will not be suitable. A smaller tractor may be more manoeuvrable, but it may not be strong enough for some tasks.


Tractor transmission can be either manual or automatic. Manual transmission is more common in smaller tractors, while automatic transmission is more common in larger tractors. Automatic transmission is easier to operate and requires less skill, but it may not be as efficient as a manual transmission.

Drive type

Tractors can be either two-wheel drive (2WD) or four-wheel drive (4WD). Two-wheel drive tractors are lighter and more manoeuvrable, but they may not have enough traction to handle rough terrain. Four-wheel drive tractors are more stable and can handle rough terrain more effectively.

Hydraulic system

The hydraulic system is essential for the operation of the various implements of the tractor. Make sure there are readily available parts and service providers in your area.


Tractor prices can vary significantly depending on the model and their features. Consider your budget and choose a tractor that fits within your budget.

Brand Reputation

Select a tractor from an estimable brand with a history of producing high- quality products. Look for client reviews and conditions to gauge the brand's reputation.

Overall, tractors have come a long way since the first tractor was introduced. With the nonstop development of technology, we can anticipate seeing further innovative and effective tractors in the future.

We hope you enjoyed reading this blog on tractors. For more such interesting and informative blogs on tractors, implements, agriculture, etc., visit Tractorkarvan.

Popular Blogs

Browse Categories


Call Us At

whatsapp icon