Modern Farming Methods in India: Advantages and Disadvantages

Updated on 09th February, 2024, By Akshay Pokharkar
Modern Farming Methods in India: Advantages and Disadvantages
Modern farming refers to the use of advanced technologies and techniques in agriculture to increase productivity, efficiency, and sustainability. It aims to meet the growing demand for food while minimizing the negative impacts on the environment and human health.

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India is an agricultural country, and it has an important share in agricultural production globally. Indian agriculture is largely dependent upon monsoon and use of traditional methods of farming is still prevalent. With the government’s consistent effort to modernise agriculture gradually modern farming methods in India is taking roots. In this blog, we will see the meaning of modern farming techniques, advantages of modern farming as well as their disadvantages.  

What is Modern Farming Method?

Modern farming or modern agriculture refers to the use of advanced technologies, equipment, and practices to increase productivity and efficiency. It involves application of scientific and technological innovations to farming practices to increase yields and reduce the environmental impact of agriculture.

Modern agriculture also includes practices such as organic farming, which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, and regenerative agriculture, which focuses on building soil health and biodiversity to promote sustainable farming practices.

These methods have evolved over time and have helped farmers produce more food with less land, water, and other resources.

Types of Modern Farming Methods

There are many types of modern farming techniques in vogue in India. Some of the techniques used in modern agriculture includes precision farming, hydroponics, greenhouses, genetically modified crops, organic farming, and regenerative agriculture, among others. Let us read about these types in brief in this section.

Precision Farming

Modern Farming Methods - Precision Farming

Precision farming, also known as precision agriculture, is a modern farming technique that uses technology like as GPS, drones, and sensors to monitor and optimize crop and soil conditions. It enables farmers to make informed decisions about when and where to apply water, fertilizer, pesticides, and other inputs based on the specific needs of each crop and soil.

The goal of precision farming is to reduce waste and increase productivity and efficiency in agriculture while minimizing the environmental impact of farming. This modern farming method require input to be used more precisely. As a result, farmers can reduce their costs and increase their yields, while minimizing the use of resources such as water and fertilizers.

Key Components of Precision Farming

  • Soil mapping: It involves using sensors and mapping tools to create detailed maps of soil properties such as texture, pH, and nutrient levels.
  • Crop mapping: It involves using aerial imagery and other tools to create detailed maps of crop health, growth, and yield potential.
  • Variable-rate technology: This involves using precision equipment to apply inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides at variable rates based on the specific needs of each crop and soil.
  • Automated machinery: This involves using machines such as tractors, sprayers, and harvesters equipped with GPS and other sensors to optimize the efficiency and precision of farming operations.

Therefore, precision farming is an innovative and effective approach to modern agriculture that offers significant benefits to farmers and the environment.

Hydroponics Farming

Modern Farming Methods - Hydroponics

Hydroponics is an advanced farming technique that involves growing plants without soil. Instead, plants are grown in nutrient-rich water solutions, often using a variety of substrates like perlite, coco coir, or vermiculite to support the roots.

The basic concept of hydroponics is that plants derive their nutrients from the water solution rather than soil. Nutrients are provided to the plants in precise amounts and ratios, ensuring that they receive exactly what they need to grow optimally.

The plants are also grown in a controlled environment, which allows for precise regulation of temperature, humidity, light, and other environmental factors that can affect plant growth.

Types of Hydroponic Systems

  • Deep water culture: This involves suspending plant roots in a nutrient-rich water solution.
  • Nutrient film technique: This involves growing plants on a thin film of nutrient-rich water.
  • Aeroponics: This involves misting plant roots with a nutrient-rich solution.

Advantages of Hydroponics Farming

Hydroponics offers several advantages over traditional soil-based farming. Some of them are:

  • It uses less water and nutrients, reduces the risk of pests and diseases, and can produce higher yields in a smaller space.
  • Because hydroponic systems are often used in indoor or greenhouse environments, they can provide fresh produce year-round regardless of weather or season.

Hydroponics is becoming increasingly popular in urban areas where space is limited, and there is a demand for fresh produce. It is also used in areas with poor soil quality or limited water resources, where traditional farming may not be feasible.


Modern Farming Methods - Greenhouses

Greenhouses are enclosed structures used for growing plants in a controlled environment. They are often made of glass or plastic and are designed to trap sunlight, creating a warm and humid environment that is ideal for growing plants.

Greenhouses are used to grow a variety of crops, including vegetables, fruits, flowers, and herbs. They are often used by commercial farmers, but they can also be used by hobbyists and home gardeners.

Types of Greenhouses

  • Traditional glass greenhouses: These are the most common type of greenhouse and are made of glass panels supported by a metal frame.
  • Plastic greenhouses: These are made of UV-resistant plastic panels and are more affordable and lightweight than traditional glass greenhouses.
  • High tunnels: These are smaller, more affordable versions of greenhouses that are often used by small-scale farmers.
  • Vertical farming towers: These are vertical structures designed for growing plants in a small space and are often used in urban environments.

Advantages of Greenhouses

This modern farming method offer several advantages over traditional outdoor farming. Some of them are:

  • They provide protection from pests and weather conditions such as wind, hail, and frost, allowing farmers to grow crops year-round and in any climate.
  • They also allow for precise control of temperature, humidity, light, and other environmental factors, which can be customized to meet the specific needs of different plants.

Overall, greenhouses are an effective way to grow crops in a controlled environment, providing farmers with a reliable source of fresh produce year-round.

Genetically Modified Crops

Modern Farming Methods - Genetically Modified Crops

The process of farming Genetically Modified (GM) crops is like traditional crops, with some key differences. GM seeds are typically more expensive than traditional seeds, but they are often designed to be more resistant to pests and diseases, as well as to tolerate herbicides.

This can result in lower costs for farmers, as they do not have to apply as much chemical pesticides or herbicides to their crops.

According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), over 190 million hectares of GM crops were grown globally in 2019, with most of these crops being soybeans, maize, cotton, and canola.

However, the farming of GM crops remains a highly debated and controversial issue. Proponents argue that these crops can help to address global food security challenges. Some farmers have embraced GM crops to increase yields and reduce the use of harmful pesticides and herbicides.

On the other hand, opponents are concerned about the potential environmental and health risks associated with their use.

Organic Farming

This is a method of farming that avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, relying instead on natural methods like crop rotation and composting. Organic farming can help improve soil health and reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture.

Types of Organic Farming

There are several types of organic farming practices, each with their own unique approach to sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture. Some of the most common types of organic farming are:

  • Crop rotation: It involves planting different crops in a specific sequence and alternating between different crop type each season. The goal is to promote soil health, prevent soil erosion, and control pest and diseases.
  • Intercropping: It involves planting different crops together in the same field to improve soil health and promote biodiversity. This method helps fix nitrogen in the soil and provide natural pest control.
  • Green manure: It is a method of using plant material, such as cover crops or weeds, to improve soil fertility and prevent soil erosion. Green manure involves planting a cover crop, such as clover or rye, in between cash crops to add nutrients to the soil and prevent weed growth.
  • Composting: It is a method of recycling organic waste, such as food scraps and yard waste, into a nutrient-rich fertilizer for crops. This method involves collecting organic waste and allowing it to decompose in a controlled environment to be used as a natural fertilizer.
  • Biological pest control: It is a method of using natural predators and beneficial insects to control pests and diseases in crops.

Advantages of Modern Farming

Modern farming has several advantages. Some of the main advantages of modern farming includes higher productivity, improves efficiency, lower prices, and environmental benefits, among others.

  • Higher productivity: It can significantly increase crop yields and improve farm productivity.
  • Improved efficiency: Modern farming techniques, such as GPS-guided tractors, Implements, drones, and automated irrigation systems, can help to reduce labour costs and improve the efficiency of farming operations.
  • Lower prices: Increased productivity and efficiency in modern farming can help to lower prices for consumers, making food more accessible and affordable.
  • Environmental benefits: Some modern farming methods, such as precision agriculture and conservation tillage, can help to reduce soil erosion, improve soil health, and conserve water resources.
  • Innovation and research: Modern farming is a field that is constantly evolving, with ongoing research and innovation leading to new technologies and methods that can improve productivity and sustainability.

Disadvantages of Modern Farming

Modern farming methods are essential to increase agricultural productivity, but they come with some disadvantages. These includes environmental impact, dependence on chemicals, high costs, and reduced biodiversity, among others.

  • Environmental impact: It can have a significant environmental impact, including soil depletion, water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Dependence on chemicals: Many modern farming methods rely heavily on synthetic chemicals and fertilizers, which can have negative impacts on human health and the environment.
  • High costs: It can be expensive, and many small-scale farmers may not have access to these technologies, leading to unequal access and distribution of resources.
  • Reduced biodiversity: It can contribute to the loss of biodiversity, as they often prioritize high-yielding crop varieties and monoculture practices over more diverse and sustainable farming methods.
  • Food safety concerns: The use of chemicals and fertilizers in modern farming can lead to food safety concerns, including the potential for contamination and pesticide residues in food products.


Overall, modern farming methods have helped increase agricultural productivity and efficiency, allowing farmers to produce more food with less land, water, and other resources. However, there are also concerns about the environmental and social impacts of some of these methods, and there is ongoing debate about the best approaches to sustainable agriculture.

Akshay Pokharkar
Published By
Akshay Pokharkar
Akshay holds a B.Tech in agriculture engineering from Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. He is an expert in tractors and implements. With over 6 years of experience in the tractor industry, he is known to simplify even the most complex technical things. An avid YouTuber by choice, he is currently working as a Senior Content Manager.
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