Everything You Need to Know About Vertical Farming in India

09 Jul 2023
Everything You Need to Know About Vertical Farming in India
Vertical farming is an emerging agricultural practice in India that is gaining recognition as a sustainable solution to tackle the challenges of food security and urbanization. Vertical farming in India is largely polyhouse-based farming.

Table of Contents


Vertical farming practice involves growing crops in vertically stacked layers or enclosed structures, using advanced technologies to create a controlled environment for optimal plant growth. Vertical farming is still in its early stages in India and is projected to witness significant growth in the coming years. The market for vertical farming is driven by factors like increasing demand for food, the need for sustainable agricultural practices, and the rising popularity of urban farming.

What is Vertical Farming?

Vertical farming is an innovative and sustainable method of cultivating crops in vertically stacked layers or structures, often indoors or in controlled environments. It involves the use of advanced technologies such as hydroponics, aeroponics, and aquaponics to provide the necessary nutrients, water, and light for plant growth. Vertical farming can be implemented in various settings, including urban buildings, greenhouses, or repurposed industrial spaces, making it suitable for both urban and rural areas.

Suitable Crops for Vertical Farming

Vertical farming offers a unique opportunity to grow a wide range of crops in a controlled environment. The selection of suitable crops for vertical farming depends on several factors, including growth characteristics, space requirements, and market demand. Here are some crops that are commonly grown in vertical farming systems:

Crops Grown in Vertical Farming


Leafy Greens

Lettuce, spinach, kale, and other leafy greens are popular choices for vertical farming. These crops have a relatively short growth cycle, high yield potential, and are well-suited for the vertical farming environment.


Basil, mint, cilantro, and other herbs are well-suited for vertical farming. They have compact growth habits, can tolerate controlled environments, and have a high demand in the culinary market.


Microgreens are young, tender seedlings of various vegetables and herbs. They have short growth cycle and compact size, hence suitable for vertical farming. They are nutrient-dense and have gained popularity as flavourful ingredients in various dishes.


Although traditionally grown in the ground, strawberries can be successfully cultivated in vertical farming systems. They have a compact growth habit and can be grown in hanging baskets or vertical towers.

Vine Crops

Cucumbers and small varieties of tomatoes can be grown in vertical farming setups. These crops require vertical support systems. This allows for better air circulation, reduces the risk of disease, and facilitates easier harvest and maintenance.

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Lavender, rosemary, and oregano can be cultivated in vertical farming systems. These crops often have specific environmental requirements, and vertical farming provides the flexibility to create the optimal growing conditions.

Edible Flowers

Some varieties of edible flowers, such as pansies, marigolds, and nasturtiums, can be grown in vertical farming setups. Vertical farming allows for efficient use of space and controlled cultivation of these delicate and beautiful blooms.


It's important to note that the suitability of crops for vertical farming can vary depending on the specific conditions, technology used, and market demand. As the field of vertical farming continues to evolve, ongoing research and experimentation are expanding the range of crops that can be successfully grown in this innovative farming method.

Advantages of Vertical Farming

  • Efficient Land Use: Vertical farming maximizes land use by utilizing vertical space, allowing for higher crop yields in a smaller footprint. This is particularly significant in densely populated regions where arable land is scarce.
  • Year-Round Crop Production: Vertical farming is not subject to seasonal variations, allowing for year-round crop production. This consistency in supply helps meet the increasing demand for fresh produce and reduces reliance on seasonal imports.
  • Water Conservation: Vertical farming employs techniques such as hydroponics or aeroponics, which use significantly less water compared to traditional soil-based farming. The closed-loop irrigation systems recycle and reuse water, minimizing water wastage.
  • Climate Control: Controlled indoor environments in vertical farms enable optimal climate conditions for crop growth. Factors such as temperature, humidity, and light can be precisely regulated, ensuring ideal growing conditions throughout the year.
  • Reduction in Pesticide Use: Vertical farming reduces the need for chemical pesticides as the closed indoor environment minimizes the risk of pests and diseases. This promotes pesticide-free or organic farming practices, resulting in healthier and safer produce.
  • Reduction in Food Miles: By implementing vertical farms in urban areas, the distance between the farm and the consumer is significantly reduced, leading to reduced transportation costs and emissions associated with long-distance shipping.

Vertical Farming Initiatives in India

  • Urban Rooftop Farms: Several cities in India have embraced rooftop farming, converting unused rooftops into productive spaces for vertical farming. These initiatives not only provide fresh produce but also contribute to urban greening and improve air quality.
  • Indoor Vertical Farms: Vertical farms set up in controlled indoor environments are gaining traction in urban areas. These farms utilize LED lights, automated systems, and nutrient management techniques to ensure optimal crop growth.
  • Aeroponics and Hydroponics Systems: Various startups and organizations in India are implementing aeroponics and hydroponics systems for commercial vertical farming. These systems provide efficient water usage, precise nutrient delivery, and faster crop growth.
  • Government Support: The Indian government, recognizing the potential of vertical farming, has initiated programs and subsidies to promote its adoption. Schemes like the National Horticulture Mission and National Agriculture Development Programme provide financial assistance and technical support to encourage vertical farming practices.

Challenges and Future Prospects of Vertical Farming

  • High Initial Investment: Vertical farming requires substantial upfront investment in infrastructure, technology, and skilled manpower. The high costs may limit the adoption of vertical farming, particularly among small-scale farmers.
  • Energy Consumption: Indoor vertical farms rely on artificial lighting and climate control systems, resulting in higher energy consumption. Exploring renewable energy sources and implementing energy-efficient technologies can help mitigate this challenge.
  • Crop Selection: Certain crops are better suited for vertical farming due to their growth characteristics and adaptability to controlled environments. Leafy greens, herbs, microgreens, and some vine crops are commonly grown in vertical farms. However, expanding the range of crops suitable for vertical farming is an ongoing area of research and development.
  • Technical Expertise: Successful implementation of vertical farming requires specialized knowledge and technical expertise in areas such as hydroponics, lighting systems, climate control, and plant nutrition. Training programs and knowledge-sharing platforms can help farmers acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to adopt vertical farming practices effectively.
  • Scalability: Scaling up vertical farming operations to meet commercial demands poses challenges in terms of maintaining consistent crop quality, managing production costs, and optimizing operational efficiency. Innovations in automation, robotics, and data analytics can enhance scalability and profitability in vertical farming.
  • Consumer Acceptance: Educating consumers about the benefits of vertical farming and promoting the consumption of locally grown produce is essential for the success of this farming method. Building trust and awareness among consumers regarding the safety, sustainability, and nutritional value of vertical farm produce is crucial.

Prospects for vertical farming in India are promising. As technology advances and economies of scale improve, the costs associated with vertical farming are likely to decrease, making it more accessible to a broader range of farmers. Collaboration between the government, agricultural institutions, and private sector players can further accelerate research and development efforts, supporting innovation and knowledge exchange in vertical farming practices.


In conclusion, vertical farming holds immense potential in India as a sustainable and efficient method of food production. With the ability to maximize land utilization, conserve water resources, and enable year-round crop cultivation, it presents a promising solution to address the challenges of food security and urbanization. As the vertical farming market in India matures and technology progresses, it is anticipated that costs will decrease, making vertical farming an attractive choice for farmers seeking sustainable and productive agricultural practices.

Popular Blogs

Browse Categories


Call Us At

whatsapp icon