Kharif Season Months in India: Importance, Crop Grown and Contributing Factors

Updated on 08th April, 2024, By Abhijeet Warak
Kharif Season Months in India: Importance, Crop Grown and Contributing Factors
Indian agriculture is largely dependent upon the southwest monsoon, which occurs from June to October every year. This period is known as the Kharif season months in India and is the most important contributor to the total foodgrain production in the country. During this crop season, major crops grown are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, and sugarcane, among others.

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India is a land of diverse climate conditions, making it an agriculture-rich country. Agriculture is the primary occupation of more than half of the population in the country. The agriculture sector depends on the three types of seasons in India: Kharif, Rabi, and Zaid. The two major cropping seasons are the Kharif and Rabi seasons, which contribute to the majority of crop production in the country. Kharif season is the most important cropping season for farmers in India as it is accountable for a wide range of crop cultivation.

This blog covers all the details regarding the Kharif season in India, including the Kharif season months, its importance, crops grown, etc.

What is Kharif season in India?

The word Kharif is taken from the Arabic language, which means autumn. This is because the harvesting of Kharif crops is done at the beginning of the autumn season. Kharif season is popularly known as the monsoon season, which starts in the month of June and lasts until October. The sowing of seeds starts in the first spell of monsoon. The time period may vary across regions and crops. The Kharif season period starts in June and lasts until October. However, this period can differ in different states in the country. The popular Kharif season crops are rice, bajra, maize, ragi, soybean, cotton, and peanuts.

Kharif Season Months in India

The Kharif season lasts between June and October, coinciding with the monsoon season. Let's discuss the month-wise progress of the Kharif season along with the crops grown during these months.


June is the starting month of the Kharif season when the monsoon arrives along the Kerala coast in South India. The tillage activities start this month and include land preparation for sowing, ploughing, and levelling of the field.

The most popular crop grown in this season is rice, which requires a lot of water for better growth. The other crops include maize, bajra, jowar, cotton, and pulses like urad and moong.


It is the peak time of monsoon season, during which heavy rainfall occurs in most parts of the country. It is a crucial time for the growth of Kharif crops as it maintains the ideal moisture level in the soil. The major crops sown in this month are soybean, ground nut, pigeon pea, etc. Additionally, vegetables like okra, brinjal, pumpkin, etc., are also sown in this month.


The monsoon starts to weaken in this month and rainfall becomes less frequent. However, the required moisture level is already retained in the soil, which is important for the growth of Kharif crops.


It is the last month of this season as the rainfall further reduces significantly. The crops sown during September require less water. The rice crop starts to mature in this month.


October marks the end of the Kharif season in India. It is the harvesting time of the crops sown in this season as the crops mature. Rice is the primary crop that is harvested this month, along with other crops such as bajra, maize, jowar, pulses, etc.

Kharif Crops in India

The popular kharif crops grown in the monsoon season are listed below:

  • Rice: It is the most important crop grown during the Kharif season. Rice is a staple food for most of the people in the country. India ranks second among the top rice-producing countries in the world after China. Rice cultivation is done in almost all the states of India. However, the majority of production comes from West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
  • Maize: Maize is a versatile crop grown during the kharif season and can be used for human consumption and livestock feed. The majority of maize is produced in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Bihar.
  • Soybean: This protein-rich Kharif season crop is used for the production of soy milk, tofu, and other food items. It is widely grown in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan.
  • Cotton: It is a cash crop cultivated during the Kharif season. Cotton is widely used in the textile industry to produce clothes. The major cotton-producing states in India are Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Telangana.
  • Sugarcane: Sugarcane is another cash crop widely cultivated during the Kharif season. Sugarcane is used in the production of sugar and ethanol. The popular sugarcane-producing states in the country are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.
  • Groundnuts: Groundnuts are rich in protein and are widely used to produce peanut butter and other food items. The major states producing groundnuts in India are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

Importance of Kharif Season in India

The importance of Kharif season can be understood by the following points:

  • Kharif is the primary season for food grain production in the country. The crops grown in this season have a major share of the country's total food grains, and any decline in the production of Kharif crops can lead to food shortages in the country.
  • Crop cultivation offers a major employment source for rural areas in the country. Labour is needed in the field during sowing, weeding, and harvesting. Thus, it helps to reduce poverty and provides an income source for people who are totally dependent on agriculture for their livelihood.
  • Kharif season plays a major role in the Indian economy, as crop production during this season is the income source for farmers and is used as a raw material in the food processing industry. The food processing industry contributes to India's GDP and offers employment in urban regions. It also contributes to India's foreign exchange earnings as India is a major exporter of food grains.
  • Kharif season promotes crop diversity in the country as farmers grow a wide variety of crops, such as food grains, vegetables, pulses, and oilseeds. A variety of crop production during this season ensures food security in the country and maintains the nutrient content in the soil.
  • Kharif crops are cultivated using traditional farming methods, such as mixed cropping and intercropping. It helps maintain soil fertility, minimises pest and disease infestation, and conserves the diversity of crop species.

Factors Contributing to the success or failure of Kharif Season in India

There are many factors which contribute to the success or failure of the Kharif season in India. These include:

  • Monsoon: Kharif crops are highly dependent on monsoon rains for growth. So, the timely arrival of monsoon and adequate rainfall distribution is important for better crop production.
  • Irrigation Infrastructure: Better irrigation infrastructure in areas with low monsoon rains will help cultivate crops better. Appropriate irrigation facilities will provide sufficient water to the Kharif crops for better growth.
  • Pest Control: The chances of crop damage due to pests and disease are high in the Kharif season due to rain. Thus, the farmers should take appropriate measures for pest control to ensure a good yield.

Frequently Asked Questions on Kharif Season Months in India: Importance, Crop Grown and Contributing Factors

1. In which season Kharif crops are grown?

Kharif crops are grown from June to October.

Kharif crops are sown in June.

Rice, Maize, sugarcane, cotton, pulses, etc., are some of the crops grown in the Kharif season.

Abhijeet Warak
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Abhijeet Warak
With over 2 years of experience, Abhijeet is a seasoned tractor and implement expert with an M.Tech (Agri) (FMP) from Dr Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth. His knowledge is rooted in practical experience and academic excellence.
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