Cultivator is an important agricultural implement used both as a primary tillage and secondary tillage. It is widely preferred by farmers for use in gardening, landscaping, and other farming operations. In this article, we will understand the meaning of cultivator, types of cultivators, and uses of cultivator along with picture of cultivator in detail.
It comes in a variety of sizes and configurations, from small handheld tools to large, tractor-mounted machines.
It is commonly used in gardening, landscaping, and farming operations to prepare soil for planting and to control weeds.
It can also be used as a primary tillage tool for breaking up unploughed ground or as a secondary tillage tool for working soil that has already been ploughed.
Different types of cultivators are available in the Indian market, and each type is designed for specific agricultural operations. The tractor drawn cultivators can be classified into two broad types, namely Trailed type, or Mounted type.
The Mounted Type is again divided into two types, namely, Spring Loaded Tynes Cultivator and Rigid Tyne Cultivator. There is another type known as Duck Foot Cultivator, which is part of cultivator with rigid tynes. In this section, we will know in detail about each type of cultivator.
The trailed type of cultivator comes with a main frame that carries several cross members fitted with tynes. At the forward end of cultivator, there is a hitch arrangement for hitching purposes, and a pair of wheels is provided. The wheels operate the lift simultaneously, ensuring even and uniform draft.
On the other hand, the hitch height is adjustable to maintain the main frame's horizontality over a range of depth settings. The tynes in each row of trailed type cultivator are widely spaced to allow soil and trash to pass through them freely.
The mounted type are cultivators driven by tractors and are fitted with a hydraulic system. A rectangular angle iron frame is mounted on the tractor's three-point hydraulic linkage. The cross members carry the tynes in two staggered rows, and various types of shovels and sweeps are used for soil cutting.
Single point shovel, double point shovel, spearhead shovel, sweep, half sweep, and furrower are some important shovels and sweeps. Shovels are chosen for use on cultivators based on soil and crop type.
Usually, tractor-drawn cultivators are of two types, depending on tine flexibility and rigidity:
In spring-loaded tyne, the tyne is hinged to the frame and loaded with a spring that swings back when an obstacle is encountered. Each of the tynes of this cultivator is equipped with two heavy coil springs that are pre-tensioned to ensure minimal movement except when an obstacle is encountered.
The springs operate when the points encounter roots or large stones, allowing the tynes to ride over the obstruction, thus preventing damage. The tynes are automatically reset, and work continues without interruption once the obstruction is passed.
The tynes are made of high-carbon steel and are held in proper alignment on the main frame members. A pair of gauge wheels controls the cultivator's depth of operation, and the cultivator can be fitted with 7, 9, 11, 13 tynes, or more depending on requirements.
This type of cultivator is especially recommended for soils that are embedded with stones or stumps.
Some of the popular models of this type includes Sonalika Heavy Duty Spring Loaded 13 Tyne Cultivator and Fieldking Medium Duty Spring Loaded 11 Cultivator, among others.
In the cultivators with rigid tynes, the tynes do not deflect during fieldwork. The tynes are bolted between angle braces, fastened to the main bars with sturdy clamps and bolts. Spacing of the tynes is changed by slackening the bolts and sliding the braces to the desired position.
Since rigid tynes are mounted on the front and rear tool bars, the spacing between the tynes can be easily adjusted without getting the tynes choked with stubbles of the previous crop or weed growth. A pair of gauge wheels is used to control the cultivator's depth of operation.
The duck-foot cultivator is a type of rigid cultivator used primarily for shallow ploughing, weed destruction, and moisture retention. It consists of a steel frame and rigid tynes to which sweeps are attached.
The implement is attached to the tractor with a three-point hitch system and is controlled by a hydraulic system.
The sweeps are made of high-carbon steel, and the number of sweeps can be adjusted as required. Usually, this cultivator is approximately 225 cm long, 60 cm wide, and has 7 sweeps.
Above, we have discussed about the Trailed type of cultivator, Mounted type cultivator, Cultivator with spring-loaded tynes, Cultivator with rigid tynes, and Duck foot cultivator. Each cultivator type is designed to suit specific soil types, crop stubble management, weed control, and tillage operations. When choosing a cultivator, it is essential to consider the soil type, the farming operation, and the desired outcome.
A cultivator machine consists of several parts like frame, tynes or blades, hitch, wheels, and deep control lever, among others. Each part plays a crucial role in its operation. The following are the main cultivator parts names:
Frame: The frame is the main structure of the cultivator. It supports the tynes or blades and provides stability to the machine.
Tynes or Blades: The tynes or blades are the most critical part of the cultivator. They are attached to the frame and are responsible for breaking up the soil, removing weeds, and preparing the ground for planting.
Hitch: The hitch is the part of the cultivator that attaches to the tractor or other vehicle that pulls it. It ensures that the machine is secure and does not detach during operation.
Wheels: The wheels support the cultivator and allow for easy manoeuvrability. They can be adjusted to change the depth and width of the cultivator.
Depth Control Lever: The depth control lever is used to adjust the depth at which the tynes or blades operate. It can be raised or lowered to suit different soil types and crops.
Transport Wheels: Transport wheels are usually located at the rear of the cultivator. They are used to transport the machine from one location to another.
Shanks: Shanks are the structural components that support the tynes or blades. They can be adjusted to change the spacing between the blades or tynes.
Gangs: Gangs are sets of tynes or blades that work together to till the soil. They are usually arranged in rows and can be adjusted to different widths.
Shield: The shield is a safety feature that covers the rotating tynes or blades. It prevents debris from flying up and injuring the operator or bystanders.
Levelling Bar: The levelling bar is used to level the soil after it has been tilled. It ensures that the ground is smooth and level, providing an ideal seedbed for planting.
These are the main cultivator parts names that make up the machine. Proper maintenance of each part is necessary for the cultivator to function effectively and efficiently in agriculture.
A cultivator can be used for multiple farm applications from soil preparation to building rows of crops. Here, we have given the top uses of cultivator in agriculture.
A cultivator is primarily used for soil preparation. They are used to break up clods of soil, loosen compacted soil, and mix in organic matter. This helps to improve soil drainage, aeration, and fertility, which in turn leads to healthier plants and higher yields.
The second use of a cultivator is weed control. The tynes work the soil and uproot weeds, which helps to reduce weed populations. Cultivators can be used to control weeds in gardens, flowerbeds, and fields.
They are also used to prepare seedbeds for planting. They can be adjusted to different depths, which helps to create a smooth, level surface for planting. They can also be used to incorporate fertilizer and other soil amendments into the soil.
We hope the article sheds light on cultivator machine and you would have gained information about cultivator, uses of cultivator, functions of cultivator, and cultivator parts name. Further, with proper use and maintenance, cultivators can help to improve soil health, increase crop yields, and reduce labour costs. Visit Tractorkavran for more such interesting blog articles on agriculture.
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